From the Social Science and Statistics Blog:

Diagoras was the original atheist and free thinker. …In the context of publication bias, his contribution is shown in a story of his visit to a votive temple on the Aegean island of Samothrace. Those who escaped from shipwrecks or were saved from drowning at sea would display portraits of themselves here in thanks to the great sea god Neptune. “Surely”, Diagoras was challenged by a believer, “these portraits are proof that the gods really do intervene in human affairs?” Diagoras’ reply cements his claim to be the “father of publication bias”: “yea, but . . . where are they painted that are drowned?”